An Expanding Archive!
Decision Making in Civil Defense
Throughout history, military commanders, politicians, and even civilians, have been called upon to make difficult decisions in difficult circumstances. In the aftermath of an enemy atomic attack, civil defense personnel would have been expected to make snap judgments while under enormous stress. Comedian Eddie Bracken hosts Decision Making in Civil Defense, a 1967 film designed to guide volunteer civil defense officials the process of decision making in times of emergency.
Town of the Times
in 1964, Town of the Times unfolds as a dramatic standoff between two
men on opposing sides of a public fallout shelter debate. As an
insurance salesman, George McCardle views public shelters as vital
protection for the future of his community. William Groves, on the
other hand, sees them as an unnecessary encouragement of war. The use
of well-known actors and a dramatic storyline makes the film, which was
meant for television broadcast, an incredibly entertaining watch.
Community Protection Through Civil Defense
Months after the creation of a National Fallout Shelter Program, officials in Jacksonville, Florida began negotiating with property owners to acquire public shelter space. Hoping to set an example, Jacksonville filmed each step it took towards creating a local fallout shelter plan, releasing the footage under the title Community Protection Through Civil Defense in 1963. The film highlights a one-day shelter stocking effort in October of 1962 where volunteers made ready shelter for 50,000 people.
In the final months of its existence, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization produced a number of motion pictures which stressed the importance of protection from radioactive fallout. By far, the most widely distributed of these films was Radiological Defense which offers a comprehensive look at how individuals and local governments can deal with the fallout of an enemy atomic attack. Also featured is a high school training program for students interested in learning about radiological monitoring.
Handbook for Survival
In order to see how average populations would fare inside a community fallout shelter, the Office of Civil Defense observed large groups of volunteers confined to a warehouse in downtown Athens, Georgia. Using an experimental guidebook, otherwise untrained citizens organize themselves to survive for a week under conditions simulating a nuclear attack. A film crew from the University of Georgia captured raw footage of the experiment.
Fallout Shelter: What is It?
The concept of seeking shelter from radioactive fallout was relatively new to Americans when the Kennedy Administration introduced the National Fallout Shelter System in late 1961. This film, released by the Office of Civil Defense in 1963, explains the process of selecting buildings to be used for public shelter. In addition to discussing the use of solid building materials, the film offers some interesting alternatives for cities to consider.
Survival Under Atomic Attack
Just months after its creation in December of 1950, the Federal Civil Defense Administration ordered the production of nine films concerning emergency preparedness and unconventional methods of enemy attack. The first of these "official" government films to see release was Survival Under Atomic Attack, a nine minute short based off a pamphlet of the same name. Famed broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow provides a stern narration.
By releasing Target You in 1955, The Federal Civil Defense Administration hoped to stress upon the audience that, as citizens of the United States, they were under the threat of enemy atomic bombs. Using animation, the film becomes a literal checklist of responsibilities which homeowners must complete if warning of an impending attack is given. At a brisk eight minutes in length, Target You focuses only on the immediate tasks needed to save lives and stop fires.
Three Reactions to Shelter Life
Instead of explaining the physical science behind protection from radioactive fallout, Three Reactions to Shelter Life examines the psychological problems likely to occur when people are confined to fallout shelters following a nuclear attack. By presenting three scenarios which highlight the mental stress and physical violence that such cramped quarters may give rise to, this 1964 Office of Civil Defense film asks fallout shelter managers how they would better handle troubled occupants.
Rehearsal for Disaster
The need for immediate aid after an atomic attack meant heavy reliance would be placed on the trucking industry to move valuable supplies and personnel into targeted cities. Eager to show their drivers were up to this challenge, The American Trucking Associations teamed with The Federal Civil Defense Administration to create Rehearsal for Disaster in 1957. Set in a roadside diner, long-haul drivers Joe and Slim discuss their transportation responsibilities during civil defense emergencies.
The Waking Point
This British film from 1951 stars character actor John Slater as the perpetually tired Joe Mercer, who doesn't see the value of civil defense in the wake of World War II. When his son is trapped in a sand pit, he quickly changes his view and joins a local rescue squad where he envisions a terrible future if more of his countrymen don't enlist in a civil defense program. Creative storytelling netted The Waking Point the Best Civil Defense Film award at the 1952 Cleveland Film Festival.
For the most part, volunteer radiological monitors practiced their craft during civil defense drills, using hypothetical attacks and imaginary fallout readings. In 1957, however, a group of specialists working for the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization were given the opportunity to train under realistic fallout conditions during Operation Plumbob. Mission Fallout follows this select crew as they demonstrate radiological detection equipment, including an in-depth look at plans for aerial monitoring.
Eager to highlight their contribution to the nation's civil defense effort, the Ex-Cell-O Corporation, producer of paper milk cartons, teamed with the Federal Civil Defense Administration to produce Crisis in 1956. Hosted by broadcaster Bob Considine, the film tells the story of how the dairy industry delivered pure drinking water to Pennsylvanians in the wake of Hurricane Diane. Considine continually reminds the audience of a need for clean water during both natural disasters and atomic attack.
Time of Disaster
In addition to urging preparation for a possible enemy attack, The Federal Civil Defense Administration and its successors also warned of the devastation which could come from natural disasters. Time of Disaster, released in late 1954, shows how the forces of nature can buildings and utilities to rubble. By focusing on a small town with a solid civil defense plan, however, the film demonstrates what steps need to be taken to keep a population safe during many types of emergencies, natural or otherwise.
Shelter on a Quiet Street
Despite the United States' creation of a nationwide system
of public fallout shelters in 1961, the federal government continued to
encourage the construction of private shelters in the home. Shelter on a
Quiet Street follows Hank Adams, local civil defense director, as he
discusses the noticeable lack of public shelters in suburban areas.
Offering a remedy for this problem, Adams helps the family of David and
Betsy Warren transform their basement into a fully stocked shelter.
Civil defense planners knew an enemy attack involving nuclear weapons would place great strain on the United States' medical infrastructure. To help ensure continuity of vital medical services, the federal government began a program of stockpiling pre-packaged disaster hospitals outside large cities in 1956. The specifics of this program are examined in the 1959 "filmograph" Emergency Hospital, made by Creative Arts Studio for the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization.
The Burroughs Corporation, a producer of adding and data storage machines, created Bombproof in 1956 after consulting with the Federal Civil Defense Administration. By telling the story of the fictional Donovan Manufacturing Company, the film offers business continuity advice for the aftermath of an enemy H-Bomb attack. Walter Abel stars as J.B. Donovan, who wisely used microfilm processing (a service provided by the Burroughs Corp.) to preserve vital company records.
Let's Face It
The Soviet Union's speedy acquisition of the hydrogen bomb came as a shock to many. Seeking to address the new threat, the Federal Civil Defense Administration released Let's Face it in 1955, which bluntly explains the increased danger now posed to American cities. The film further explains, however, that a robust civil defense program augmented with ample citizen participation, which is prominently highlighted throughout the film, can counter this danger.
Over the course of three months in 1953, the United States detonated 11 atomic bombs in the Nevada desert. Members of the press were invited to view the first detonation in order to report on Operation Doorstep, an exercise conducted by the Federal Civil Defense Administration to test the effect of a nuclear explosion on the standard American domestic scene, including homes, vehicles, and weighted mannikins. Footage captured during Operation Doorstep was quickly edited into a short film of the same name.
Seconds for Survival
Bell Telephone, interested in presenting its contributions to America's civil and national defense networks, produced Seconds for Survival in 1959 to highlight its advances in radar systems and guided missiles. Focusing on the Nike Zeus, a large anti-ballistic missile designed to destroy Soviet ICBMs which was still in the developmental stages at the film's creation, Seconds for Survival offers hypothetical demonstrations of its capabilities.
Civil Defense in Schools
Based off a 1952 pamphlet of the same name, Civil Defense in Schools examines how education authorities can organize and implement emergency plans in case of an enemy attack. In addition to discussing the bureaucratic procedures needed, the film presents numerous examples of how schools have improvised their own fallout shelters. Also presented are fascinating shots of civil defense equipment in action, including light warning boxes, telephone operated sirens, and radiological detection devices.
With very few exceptions, films used in American civil defense programs were products of American studios with financial backing from the government. Trapped, released in the United States in early 1954, is unique in that it was created by the Swedish Civil Defense Office as a means to train rescue squads. Originally titled "Raddning av instanga under bombade hus", the film follows a volunteer excavation crew as they struggle to free residents of a collapsed apartment building in the aftermath of an enemy bomb.
The Protected School
When education officials in Laredo added fallout shelter space and other protective features into the newly constructed United High School, the Office of Civil Defense sought to promote this practice by featuring the district in the 1965 film Texas Has a Brand New School. Later that same year, officials released a condensed version of the film titled The Protected School. As a series of still images strung together with narration, The Protected School highlights the multipurpose benefits fallout shelters can serve.
During the summer of 1958, two government agencies merged into the hybrid Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization which was renamed less than two months later. Despite its brief lifespan, The ODCM managed to produce at least one film, Cummings City, which examines military assistance in the wake of natural and nuclear disasters. Set in a fictional coastal city during a massive hurricane, the film makes clear that any military presence would be a temporary supplment to local civil defense resources.
Emergency Action to Save Lives
In early 1951, the newly formed Federal Civil Defense Administration announced the creation of nine films concerning various aspects of emergency preparedness. Each film was to be based off widely distributed pamphlets which had been in circulation for the previous year. Emergency Action to Save Lives, which explains very basic first-aid techniques needed in the aftermath of an atomic attack, was produced as part of this public information initiative.
Frontlines of Freedom
Hypothetical projections of a
nuclear attack against the United States often began with a flight of
Soviet bombers crossing the North Pole before sweeping across Canada
towards their intended targets. Recognizing the mutual threat this
scenario posed to each country, civil defense officials in Canada and
the United States came together to produce Frontlines of Freedom in
1955. The film was made to serve primarily as a propaganda piece,
extolling the virtues of democracy and other Western freedoms.
Modern Minute Men
What would happen if A-Bombs fell on Ohio? This is the question explored by Modern Minute Men, created by the Bell Telephone Company in 1952 specifically for the Buckeye State. Harkening back to the days of the American Revolution, the film likens civil defense volunteers to the original minute men, who could assemble for battle at a moment's notice. Through the use of home movies, a warden explains why industrial centers like Columbus and Cincinnati are no longer safe from the threat of an enemy attack.
Hospitals for Disaster
Beginning in 1956, the federal government stockpiled emergency disaster hospitals across the United States. Nearly a decade later, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare filmed the set-up and simulated use of one such hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. In addition to highlighting the sophisticated components of each portable medical center, Hospitals for Disaster features volunteers in gory makeup who seek to add a sense of realism to an otherwise optimistic production.
Often, the federal government would promote films and other productions which highlighted civil defense, even if it did not have a hand in their creation. Such was the case with Atomic Attack, a dramatic fiction adapted into an episode of the Motorola Television Hour in 1954. Phyllis Thaxter stars as Gladys Mitchell, a suburban housewife caught home alone when New York City is destroyed by a H-Bomb. In spite of her initial panic, Mrs. Mitchell is able to regain her composure and follow CONELRAD radio instructions.
Operations in Public Shelters
In the event of a nuclear exchange, civil defense plans relied upon thoroughly trained individuals assuming leadership roles within public fallout shelters. But what if an appointed shelter manager failed to survive the initial attack? Operations in Public Shelters explores this scenario by examining Public Shelter 126, where a deputy shelter manager struggles to control both panic and confusion. Utilizing a frantic pace, this 1963 film explains how order can be restored through a strict adherence to bureaucratic procedures.
Nerve Gas Casualties and Their Treatment
In early 1951, the Federal Civil Defense Administration announced the production to nine films designed to address threats facing the American public. While most of the released titles deal with the dangers posed by the atomic bomb, Nerve Gas Casualties and Their Treatment examines the symptoms of "war" gasses, particularly when left untreated. Incorporating clips from army training films, as well as a demonstration, this 1957 production also features an introduction by F.C.D.A. health director Dr. John Whitney.
Individual and Family Reactions on Warning
Meant to be both entertaining and informative, Individual and Family Reactions on Warning was created by the Office of Civil Defense in 1964 to serve as a guide for forming a family fallout shelter plan. Fred, a concerned husband and father, strategically questions each member of his family on appropriate actions during an emergency. Despite his wife's reservations on the topic, a consensus is quickly reached that calls for a quick journey to the nearest marked public shelter when the sirens sound.
The Invisible Enemy
1958 saw the formation of The Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, an agency devoted to spreading the message of fallout protection. To achieve this task, government planners appropriated a number of existing films, such as The Invisible Enemy, which had been created for specific regions. Made in Michigan to highlight the radiation dangers facing that state, the film features the emergency preparations of Grand Rapids and Battle Creek, explained through a lecture by an atomic research scientist.
U.S. Civil Defense in Action
Released in early 1953, this film was designed to champion the progress America was making in civil defense preparations. Although the various films and radio programs created by the Federal Civil Defense Administration are highlighted in detail, a challenge is also presented to the population, who are accused of being apathetic towards the atomic threat. Coming in the midst of the Alert America campaign, the film encourages volunteers to step forward and offer their skills to fulfill a civic duty.
Day Without End
After the creation of the National Fallout Shelter Program in late 1961, the role of the local civil defense director expanded as cities and states, once left to devise their own pre-attack preparedness, now received guidance, funding and supplies from the federal government. Day Without End shadows Bill Logan, civil defense director, as he coordinates his town's emergency planning. Facing thrifty bureaucrats, reluctant property owners, and a lack of participation, his challenges are many and his hours are long.
Famed broadcaster Edward R. Murrow once again lent his hand to civil defense officials when creating One Plane, One Bomb in 1953. Shot in the style of his See it Now program, Murrow and his CBS crew document a hypothetical experiment testing whether a flight of U.S. bomber planes, posing as Soviets, can fly across American soil and remain undetected until reaching New York City. Relying primarily on the trained volunteers of the Ground Observer Corps, the film paints a grim picture of America's state of preparedness.
Nuclear Detonations: The First Sixty Seconds
Throughout the 1960's,
the Office of Civil Defense produced a number of short, focused films each with
the purpose of teaching about a specific aspect
of the nuclear threat. Filmed in a classroom setting, Nuclear Detonations:
The First Sixty Seconds does not stray from what's promised in the title.
A teacher/narrator explains to his class about the immediate effects and
dangers of blast, shock, heat, and initial radiation.
Planning for Public Shelter Entry
The implementation of the National Fallout Shelter Survey in 1961 created the need to train thousands of volunteers to staff the public refuges. This film from 1963 was designed to examine the initial moments of shelter entry, when frightened patrons would need to be efficiently settled inside. Following a group of neighborhood civil defense officials convening at the door to a warehouse, Planning for Public Shelter stresses good communication, a secure environment, and prompt first aid for those in need immediately following an attack.
The growing fear of an enemy attack was fanned in 1952 with the development of the hydrogen bomb, a move quickly matched by the Soviets the following year. Rising to address the situation, F.C.D.A. director Val Peterson lectures viewers on the increased destructive power of the new weapons, focusing primarily on fallout dangers. Set entirely within Peterson's office, A New Look at the H Bomb uses detailed photographs to show the dispersing nature of radioactive contamination and the best defense to it.
The Family Fallout Shelter
When the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization distributed a pamphlet entitled The Family Fallout Shelter in 1959, it formally asked the American public to create a private shelter system within their homes. The following year, this film with the same title was produced, illustrating the do-it-yourself shelter designs showcased in the pamphlet. Featuring the Brown family, The Family Fallout Shelter traces their elaborate underground shelter from the planning stages to the final stocking of supplies.
Fallout: When and How to Protect Yourself
1958 saw the creation of a new national civil defense agency which initiated a campaign for greater awareness of fallout radiation. As part of this much heralded public information endeavor, an animated film was contracted in 1959 to provide a general overview of the threat fallout particles posed. The resulting production, Fallout: When and How to Protect Yourself Against It, features a cartoon businessman quickly established as an average American, who demonstrates how to protect himself, his family, and his property from the deadly residue.
Disaster on Main Street
The Federal Civil Defense Administration was established in 1950 with two goals, first to raise awareness of the atomic bomb's potential for destruction, and second to conventionalize this power. Disaster on Main Street sought to accomplish both of these goals by connecting images of rubble and refugees from World War II with a stern warning that the same fate could befall American cities who remain complacent on civil defense. Narrated by famed journalist Edward R. Murrow, the film provides an interesting glimpse into the early policies of the F.C.D.A.
Living With the Atom
Religion often found its way into many policies or practices concerning the atomic threat. In 1957, for example, The Moody Institute of Science found a way to incorporate the principles of Intelligent Design into both atomic energy and the vast moral dilemma the wielding of such power held. Living With the Atom unfolds as both a science lesson, complete with visual aides, and a moral lecture urging consultation with a higher power before dictating policies involving "the building blocks of The Creator."
Briefly, About Fallout
When it was created in 1963, About Fallout became one of the most widely distributed films on the topic of civil defense. Four years later, the Office of Civil Defense cashed in on the same subject matter once again by carefully editing their hit into a condensed version which was eventually entitled Briefly, About Fallout. Though it is the same film, the advice considerably trimmed, resembling more an advertisement for the National Fallout Shelter Program than an instructional device.
Infant and Child Care
As this film quickly makes clear, the likelihood of infants and small children being present in a fallout shelter following a nuclear attack was high. Recognizing the problems these tiny occupants would no doubt face, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare created Infant and Child Care as an abbreviated guide for parents caught in emergency situations. While focusing almost entirely on the sanitation and feeding of infants, the film also provides some fascinating insight as to how teenagers were supposed to behave while confined to the shelter.
Although most commonly associated with an atomic threat, civil defense also sought to protect against the furies of nature. A prime example of this non-nuclear defense can be found in the 1956 public service film Tornado, which explains the formations of the deadly vortexes, while depicting the destruction of the fictional Elmville, Oklahoma. Featuring a host of developing meteorological technology, parallels can easily be drawn between Tornado's content, and that of films which demonstrate the devastation likely to occur following an enemy attack.
Emergency Operating Centers: Radiological Defense Operations
Created in 1967 as part of a monitoring series, this film picks up moments after an enemy attack has hit the fictional metropolis of Central City. Descending into a county-level civil defense headquarters Emergency Operating Centers: RaDef Operations follows a number of civil defense officers as they plot fallout projections headed towards the town. Covering in detail the jobs of EOC staff member, the film uses a number of relatable characters who also address problems of communication and a lack of accurate information.
To Live Tomorrow
Produced in part by the Institute of Life Insurance, To Live Tomorrow begins with a speech by President Eisenhower calling for a solid civil defense program. Utilizing this call to preparedness, an insurance executive examines the ways in which humans react to sudden change, from minor disturbances to life-threatening disaster, all while on his train commute home. Culminating in a brief thought experiment involving his fellow passengers, the executive's message is grim, too many Americans would panic in a disaster without proper leadership and training.
Your Chance to Live: Nuclear Disaster
The 1970's proved to be the waning years for American civil defense programs and during this time of diminishing public awareness, an experimental film was produced to show the dangers of such attitudes. Created by the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency as part of the Your Chance to Live series, Nuclear Disaster is a film highlighting process of creating a civil defense film. Follow a director and his camera crew as they interview potential actors, sync sirens sounds to images, and discuss intonations with their narrator before a surprise ending provides a fitting conclusion!
New Family in Town
The Second World War provided a generation with a first-hand experience of warfare and in 1956, the F.C.D.A. drew upon this experience in a unique way when creating New Family in Town. The film relates the stir which is caused by the arrival of the Trombleys, an English family, into a working class American town. In addition to bringing with them a host of foreign customs, the Trombleys also possess a keen interest in civil defense, a trait displayed to the rest of the town through the construction of a state of the art air raid shelter.
In Time of Emergency
The late 1960's saw a general decline in civil defense, both budget wise and in a "general apathy" on behalf of the American public. As an attempt to reinvigorate a stagnating image across the country, the In Time of Emergency pamphlet campaign developed in March of 1968 and this film of the same name followed a year later. While the idea of campaign was to liken preparation for an enemy attack to natural disaster, the film forgoes any mention hurricanes, blizzards, or flooding, instead focusing on fallout protection.
The House in the Middle
As a means of spreading public awareness of civil defense, the F.C.D.A. often invited various companies and trade organizations to test their products in the presence of an atomic blast. Participation in this experimental marketing provided the National Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer Association with promising footage concerning the protective capabilities of finishing materials. The resulting film, The House in the Middle, recommends a clean house, a tidy yard, and a fresh coat of white paint to keep homes safe.
Emergency Operations Centers: The Basic Concepts
As an introductory film to a radiological monitoring series, Emergency Operations Centers provides a number of humorous situations alongside tedious suggestions for management protocols. The film takes place in the fictional Central City and features an unlikely duo consisting of up-and-coming celebrity Conrad Bain and wiseguy comedian Arnold Stang who create an ideal emergency headquarters for the local government.
The Price of Liberty
The creation of the Federal Civil Defense Administration in 1950, and the inception of the Alert America program the following year created a boost in civil defense awareness which ultimately resonated in a call for volunteers. One manifestation of this call appeared in The Price of Liberty, a presentation from WNYC tailored specifically for New York audiences. Adopting the motto later utilized for Alert America, the film sternly warns that "Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty" while encouraging the viewer to volunteer.
Fire Fighting for Householders
As one of the nine original commissions by the Federal Civil Defense Administration in 1951, this production holds a unique place in the first federally sponsored film campaign on nuclear civil defense. Step by step procedures for fighting wood, chemical, and electrical fires are presented as a both training process, and an incentive to keep property free of flammable debris. Utilitarian in script and drama, Fire Fighting for Householders gives the viewer just enough taste of their expected responsibilities as to encourage further reading on the subject.
The Safest Place
Increased awareness of the threat fallout posed to rural populations led the United States Department of Agriculture to produce a number of films in the late 1950's and early 1960's to help farmers and ranchers deal with the problem. Evenly paced and to the point, The Safest Place praises the "built in" preparedness of rural life as much as it informs on fallout protection. Stressing the utilization of existing farm space, County Agent Bob Martin helps dairy farmer Hugh Wilson ready his family and livestock for an attack.
The concluding film in a 1967 series concerning radiological monitoring, this production injects a well needed dose of humor and drama into what had fast become a painstakingly detailed project. Trace a gruff shelter manager and his heat oppressed staff as they bring in more medicine and sardines to supplement their dwindling supplies while avoiding the harsh presence of radioactivity. Short and triumphant, Planning for Emergence from Public Shelters exudes optimism while still trying to present the blunt reality of war.
The first in a line of films designed to show county level civil defense officials how to set up an effective radiological monitoring program, this short begins with a personal story. Follow Dan Carter, an average citizen already learned in physics, as he becomes educated in the science of fallout. A fun beginning to a tedious series, Introduction to a Radiological Defense Exercise weaves human poignancy with the cold facts of nuclear war, and all in six minutes!
-And A Voice Shall be Heard
Originally aired as a prime time special on CBS in 1957, this dramatic reenactment of a nuclear attack on Portland, Oregon was narrated by celebrity Glenn Ford. Highlighting the city's plan of evacuation, the footage was taken from Operation Greenlight, a 1955 civil defense drill. Excellent usage of suspense and action shots make A Day Called X a very entertaining watch!
Narrated by radio personality Andre Barruch, this production spotlights the civil defense preparations being undertaken by the city of Reading, Pennsylvania. Stressing the need to help others and come together as a community during an atomic crisis, the film offers superb shots of rescue teams in action, as well as the peculiar ways in which the county is preparing to warn the public and carry on effective communication after the bomb falls.
An early attempt to introduce school aged children to the dangers of the nuclear age, this film was produced as a line of science-related shorts by Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Using a blend of animated nuclear attacks and real life children, the ideas of seeking shelter, avoiding blast and heat, and trusting adults and older kids are repeated numerous times to drill the procedure into the heads of the viewers.
This film looks at the effects of a biological, not nuclear, attack on the United States. Based on a pamphlet of the same name, What You Should Know About Biological Warfare outlines the different methods in which a biological attack can occur and what the medical community is doing to halt the results if one occurs. Urging obedience to health authorities, the film promotes the pamphlet for further information on the subject.
One of the original films produced by the Federal Civil Defense Administration in 1951, Our Cities Must Fight preaches a scathing message against evacuation. Shot in a very unique way that is best described as a dramatic dialogue between two men, stock footage of traffic jams and civil defense drills are incorporated to make an argument against leaving American cities when the fear of attack is high.